What treatment options do infertile couples have?

Several options are offered to couples depending on the type of infertility that has been diagnosed. The vast majority of female patients are successfully treated with the administration of drugs such as clomiphene citrate, bromocriptine or gonadotrophins. Surgery can also be a means to repair damage to the reproductive organs, such as those caused by endometriosis and infectious diseases. Treatment options for male infertility also include the administration of drugs, surgery and assisted reproductive technologies, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Drug therapy and surgery have proved very successful for specific types of male infertility. However, in a great number of cases, the reason why men have fertility problems remains unexplained and the treatment methods applied are empirical. Some patients nevertheless require more complex medical intervention. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) refer to several different methods designed to overcome barriers to natural fertilization such as anatomical problems (e.g. blocked fallopian tubes). One of these techniques, in-vitro fertilization (IVF), has now been practiced for more than 15 years. Overall, the estimated number of infertile patients currently treated by ART is around 20%.