Abnormal Period: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factor, and Treatment
28 Sep 2022 by Rotunda - The Center for Human Reproduction
A woman experiences her periods every 24 to 35 days. Typically, a period lasts between two to eight days. Menstrual bleeding is heavy or prolonged and is referred to as “Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).” According to an NIH study, 14% to 25% of women of childbearing age face AUB. Other symptoms of AUB are:
- Unexpected periods
- Scanty periods
- Menorrhagia (heavier bleeding than usual)
- Periods start at the age of 9
- Delayed or non-existent periods
- More than eight days of bleeding
- Significant blood loss throughout the menstrual cycle
- Altering your daily chores due to heavy bleeding
- Spots or leaking between periods (intermenstrual bleeding)
- Lower abdominal ache and cramps, weariness
- Any menopausal vaginal bleeding
Causes of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding:
A late period or abnormal uterine bleeding may occur due to:
- Miscarriage (unexpected ending of pregnancy)
- Ectopic pregnancy (when the fetus is implanted in the narrow fallopian tube rather than the uterus)
- Hormonal imbalances (diseases including hyperprolactinemia, PCOS, and hypothyroidism might interfere with the menstrual cycle)
- Ovulatory dysfunction (when the ovary does not release an egg every month)
- Infection (chlamydia or pelvic inflammatory disease are two examples of infection)
- New medication
- Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD causes heavier periods by acting as a foreign entity inside the uterus)
- Hormone replacement therapy (it is a menopausal symptom treatment)
- Fibroids (benign tumors which develop inside the uterus, it may be related to polyps)
- Polyps (tiny, stalk-like growths on the uterine lining)
- Bleeding disorders (leukemia and Von Willebrand disease)
- Cancer (most uterine malignancies grow in the uterus lining, while some cancers may also spread to their muscle layers and cause abnormal heavy periods)
Risk Factors of Delayed periods:
You are more likely to miss your periods if you:
- Are pregnant
- Have a hormone-containing IUD
- Have PID, PCOS, or uterine fibroid
- Your periods have started recently
- Have tried birth control techniques like the post-coital contraceptive pill
- Your cervix, vagina, or another part of the reproductive tract is infected
Diagnosis of Missed Periods:
If you notice your menstrual cycle is not regular, go for early treatment to save yourself from major health risks. Several tests, including the following, are used to diagnose and rule out potential causes of irregular uterine bleeding. A urine pregnancy test at home with the first-morning sample of urine or visit a gynaecologist who will do a:
- General Examination
- History of Medical Background
- Menstrual History
- Physical Examination
- Cervical Screening Test
- Blood Tests for hormonal imbalance or vitamin and mineral deficiency
- Vaginal Ultrasonography
- Endometrial Biopsy
Treatment of Irregular Menstruation:
The treatment depends on the issues you are facing. However, most of the treatments may include:
- Medication- Prescription drugs, such as prostaglandin inhibitors, HRT, or antibiotics
- Dilatation and curettage (D&C)
- Change of contraception
- Surgery to treat an ectopic pregnancy, remove tumors, polyps, or fibroids
- Treatment of underlying problems such as hypothyroidism or a bleeding disorder
- Hysterectomy- This process involves removing the entire uterus, which is typically only considered a last resort for treating irregular uterine bleeding when another serious illness, such as cancer, is also present
When to Call a Doctor?
If you experience any of these signs, contact your doctor right away:
- Three or more periods are missed annually.
- Your period occurs more frequently than every 21 days.
- Your period comes less frequently than every 35 days.
- If you are bleeding more heavily than normal.
- You bleed for more than seven days.
- Your menstrual cramps are more painful than usual.
The Words from Rotunda IVF:
Suppose you are suffering from any of the symptoms mentioned above and want to get rid of them. Contact us at Rotunda IVF to schedule an appointment.
At Rotunda IVF, our professionals can help you find a treatment that helps get your period back on track quickly. We are here to work for you in the best way possible, keeping your convenience in mind. We also educate our patients to aid them quickly.